Cell Parts and Functions Table

Cell Organelle Cell Function
Nucleus Directs all cell activities "Brain or Control Center of cell"
Nuclear Envelope (Membrane) Controls what passes in and out of the nucleus
Cytoplasm Jelly-like substance found inside cell that acts as a medium for chemical reactions within the cell
Golgi Body (Apparatus) Packages the proteins made by the ribosomes so they can be sent out of the cell. The UPS store of the cell
Mitochondrion "powerhouse of the cell" breaks down sugar molecules to release energy, site of cellular respiration, double membrane, self-replicating, contains own DNA, cristae
Vacuole "Storage tanks" Can hold food, water or waste for the cell
Ribosome Makes proteins for the cell, can be found attached to the endoplasmic reticulum or free in the cytoplasm
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Transportation network for the cell, moves materials around in the cell

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)- endoplasmic reticulum that has ribosomes attached.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)- does not have ribosomes attached

Lysosome "Stomach of the cell" Helps the cell digest food, waste and worn out cell parts
Nucleolus Produces ribosomes and rRNA( stuff ribosomes are made of)
Cell Membrane (plasma membrane) "Gatekeeper" Separates the cell from the rest of the environment and helps control what passes in and out of the cell.  Semi-permeable: allows some materials to pass through but not all
Chloroplast A special plastid that contains chlorophyll a pigment that captures the sun's energy to produce glucose in a process called photosynthesis
Cell Wall Rigid outer layer made of cellulose that supports and protects the cell (plant, fungi, and bacterial cells)
Vesicle Stores and Transports substances from the Golgi Body to the cell membrane for export. "The UPS truck of the cell"
Cytoskeleton gives support and shape to the cell, made of proteins
Centriole Organizes special parts of the cytoskeleton called microtubules for cell division, migrates to opposite ends (poles) of the cell to assist with cell division